证书和回调报文解密

为了保证安全性,微信支付在回调通知和平台证书下载接口中,对关键信息进行了AES-256-GCM加密。本章节详细介绍了加密报文的格式,以及如何进行解密。

加密报文格式

AES-GCM是一种NIST标准的认证加密算法, 是一种能够同时保证数据的保密性、 完整性和真实性的一种加密模式。它最广泛的应用是在TLS中。

证书和回调报文使用的加密密钥为APIv3密钥

对于加密的数据,我们使用了一个独立的JSON对象来表示。为了方便阅读,示例做了Pretty格式化,并加入了注释。

{
"original_type": "transaction", // 加密前的对象类型
"algorithm":"AEAD_AES_256_GCM", // 加密算法
// Base64编码后的密文
"ciphertext": "...",
// 加密使用的随机串初始化向量)
"nonce": "...",
// 附加数据包(可能为空)
"associated_data": ""
}

加密的随机串,跟签名时使用的随机串没有任何关系,是不一样的。

解密

算法接口的细节,可以参考RFC 5116

大部分编程语言(较新版本)都支持了AEAD_AES_256_GCM。开发者可以参考下列的示例,了解如何使用您的编程语言实现解密。

Java
PHP
.NET
Python
Java
import java.io.IOException;
import java.security.GeneralSecurityException;
import java.security.InvalidAlgorithmParameterException;
import java.security.InvalidKeyException;
import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException;
import java.util.Base64;
import javax.crypto.Cipher;
import javax.crypto.NoSuchPaddingException;
import javax.crypto.spec.GCMParameterSpec;
import javax.crypto.spec.SecretKeySpec;
public class AesUtil {
static final int KEY_LENGTH_BYTE = 32;
static final int TAG_LENGTH_BIT = 128;
private final byte[] aesKey;
public AesUtil(byte[] key) {
if (key.length != KEY_LENGTH_BYTE) {
throw new IllegalArgumentException("无效的ApiV3Key,长度必须为32个字节");
}
this.aesKey = key;
}
public String decryptToString(byte[] associatedData, byte[] nonce, String ciphertext)
throws GeneralSecurityException, IOException {
try {
Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES/GCM/NoPadding");
SecretKeySpec key = new SecretKeySpec(aesKey, "AES");
GCMParameterSpec spec = new GCMParameterSpec(TAG_LENGTH_BIT, nonce);
cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, key, spec);
cipher.updateAAD(associatedData);
return new String(cipher.doFinal(Base64.getDecoder().decode(ciphertext)), "utf-8");
} catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException | NoSuchPaddingException e) {
throw new IllegalStateException(e);
} catch (InvalidKeyException | InvalidAlgorithmParameterException e) {
throw new IllegalArgumentException(e);
}
}
}
PHP
class AesUtil
{
/**
* AES key
*
* @var string
*/
private $aesKey;
const KEY_LENGTH_BYTE = 32;
const AUTH_TAG_LENGTH_BYTE = 16;
/**
* Constructor
*/
public function __construct($aesKey)
{
if (strlen($aesKey) != self::KEY_LENGTH_BYTE) {
throw new InvalidArgumentException('无效的ApiV3Key,长度应为32个字节');
}
$this->aesKey = $aesKey;
}
/**
* Decrypt AEAD_AES_256_GCM ciphertext
*
* @param string $associatedData AES GCM additional authentication data
* @param string $nonceStr AES GCM nonce
* @param string $ciphertext AES GCM cipher text
*
* @return string|bool Decrypted string on success or FALSE on failure
*/
public function decryptToString($associatedData, $nonceStr, $ciphertext)
{
$ciphertext = \base64_decode($ciphertext);
if (strlen($ciphertext) <= self::AUTH_TAG_LENGTH_BYTE) {
return false;
}
// ext-sodium (default installed on >= PHP 7.2)
if (function_exists('\sodium_crypto_aead_aes256gcm_is_available') &&
\sodium_crypto_aead_aes256gcm_is_available()) {
return \sodium_crypto_aead_aes256gcm_decrypt($ciphertext, $associatedData, $nonceStr, $this->aesKey);
}
// ext-libsodium (need install libsodium-php 1.x via pecl)
if (function_exists('\Sodium\crypto_aead_aes256gcm_is_available') &&
\Sodium\crypto_aead_aes256gcm_is_available()) {
return \Sodium\crypto_aead_aes256gcm_decrypt($ciphertext, $associatedData, $nonceStr, $this->aesKey);
}
// openssl (PHP >= 7.1 support AEAD)
if (PHP_VERSION_ID >= 70100 && in_array('aes-256-gcm', \openssl_get_cipher_methods())) {
$ctext = substr($ciphertext, 0, -self::AUTH_TAG_LENGTH_BYTE);
$authTag = substr($ciphertext, -self::AUTH_TAG_LENGTH_BYTE);
return \openssl_decrypt($ctext, 'aes-256-gcm', $this->aesKey, \OPENSSL_RAW_DATA, $nonceStr,
$authTag, $associatedData);
}
throw new \RuntimeException('AEAD_AES_256_GCM需要PHP 7.1以上或者安装libsodium-php');
}
}
.NET
public class AesGcm
{
private static string ALGORITHM = "AES/GCM/NoPadding";
private static int TAG_LENGTH_BIT = 128;
private static int NONCE_LENGTH_BYTE = 12;
private static string AES_KEY = "yourkeyhere";
public static string AesGcmDecrypt(string associatedData, string nonce, string ciphertext)
{
GcmBlockCipher gcmBlockCipher = new GcmBlockCipher(new AesEngine());
AeadParameters aeadParameters = new AeadParameters(
new KeyParameter(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(AES_KEY)),
128,
Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(nonce),
Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(associatedData));
gcmBlockCipher.Init(false, aeadParameters);
byte[] data = Convert.FromBase64String(ciphertext);
byte[] plaintext = new byte[gcmBlockCipher.GetOutputSize(data.Length)];
int length = gcmBlockCipher.ProcessBytes(data, 0, data.Length, plaintext, 0);
gcmBlockCipher.DoFinal(plaintext, length);
return Encoding.UTF8.GetString(plaintext);
}
}
Python
from cryptography.hazmat.primitives.ciphers.aead import AESGCM
import base64
def decrypt(nonce, ciphertext, associated_data):
key = "Your32Apiv3Key"
key_bytes = str.encode(key)
nonce_bytes = str.encode(nonce)
ad_bytes = str.encode(associated_data)
data = base64.b64decode(ciphertext)
aesgcm = AESGCM(key_bytes)
return aesgcm.decrypt(nonce_bytes, data, ad_bytes)